INTRODUCTION TO PHRASAL VERBS

This is an English Language lesson which provides an introduction to Phrasal Verbs.

To understand phrasal verbs, it is important to be able to recognize words which are nouns, verbs, adverbs and prepositions.

A phrasal verb is an expression combining a verb with an adverb and/or a preposition.

It is also referred to as a Preposition Verb.

Think of a phrasal verb as an expression where the preposition or adverb are capable of being separated.

Phrasal verbs are flexible in that the position of the object noun can go either between the verb and the adverb or after the adverb

The taxi driver picked up the passenger

The taxi driver picked the passenger up

When the object is a pronoun, it can only go between the verb and the adverb or preposiiton in a phrasal verb expression.

The taxi driver picked him up

The taxi driver picked up him (this is incorrect)

In the case of a preposition verb, the verb-preposition combination cannot be separated and the object must come after the preposition.

The babysitter looked after the children

The babysitter looked the children after (this is incorrect0

It is therefore important for the student to fully understand the following

Subject and Object

Noun and Pronoun

Transitive and Intransitive

Separable and Inseparable

The subject and the object will always be either a noun or a pronoun.

Ball, Man, Game, Accident, School, Masterplan,  are all nouns.

A noun can be more than one word (e.g. United States of America)

Not all sentences require a subject and an object but they will require one or the other.

(e.g. Close the door – no subject.    He cried – no object)

An object can be direct or indirect

The boy gave a present to his friend

In that sentence, ‘boy’ is the subject, ‘present’ is the direct object and ‘friend’ indirect object.

A noun can be replaced by a pronoun.

(He, She, It, Him, Us, Something, Everybody, Mine, Ours are all examples of pronouns)

A Transitive Verb requires an object.  In other words, it requires a qualifying noun to make sense of the sentence.

The man gave up smoking (smoking is the object)

She cut the cake (cake is the object)

The cake is cut (cake is the object.  there is no subject)

An Intransitive Verb does not require an object but can be appended by a preposition phrase, noun phrase and/or adverb.

He died (of cancer)

It rained (yesterday)

Nobody knows (the truth)

I laughed (at the joke)

Continue, move, start, change, close, open, run, wash and write are examples of verbs which can be both Transitive and Intransitive.

We will continue the lesson after lunch (continue is a transitive verb, lesson – object)

The meeting continued after lunch (continue is intransitive appended by after lunch)

Many phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs become nouns when they are either compounded (e.g. countdown) or hyphenated (e.g. count-down) and have a different meaning.

In conclusion, let us take a look at the expression ‘check out’ and ‘check out of’

The couple checked out of the hotel

They have already checked out

The couple checked the hotel out before making a booking

The couple checked it out before making a booking

The couple made the payment at the check-out

Sentence 1 – ‘check out of’ is a preposition verb because the words cannot be separated from each other.

Sentence 2 – ‘check out’ is a phrasal verb and is capable of being separated

Sentence 3 – ‘check out’ is a phrasal verb which is separated by a noun phrase (the hotel)

Sentence 4 – ‘check out’ is a phrasal verb which is separated by a pronoun (it)

Sentence 5 –  ‘check-out’ is a noun and not a phrasal verb or preposition verb

 

This lesson is no more than an outline of the key points about using phrasal verbs.in the English language.

There is a lot more to be learnt by interaction through reading and listening to English in a variety of different ways.

Good luck to all students in their application to learn English and continue to visit the blogsite of http://www.thenativeenglishteacher.wordpress.com.

 

DESCRIBE A JOB AT A DEPARTMENT STORE

This is an English lesson where an employee describes a job they do at a department store.

You might be asked to describe the job you do for a TOEFL or IELTS talk for one or two minutes.

The content of this lesson can easily be adapted for that purpose.

The keywords of the lesson are highlighted.

This is the text of the lesson.

 

Hello everyone, my name is Chris.

I am a retail assistant in a famous department store.

You can see I am wearing a uniform.

Can you guess the name of the department store?

The store is located in the shopping mall outside of the city.

I work in the Footwear Department.

The department is located on the third floor.

You can get to the Footwear Department easily by escalator or elevator.

Restrooms are located on the same floor near to the cashier desk.

In the Footwear department, we sell shoes, boots, sandals and trainers.

Sports equipment is sold in the department next to the Footwear Department.

The store is open seven days a week (except public holidays).

Opening times are from ten in the morning until eight in the evening.

I work there five days each week.

My two days off are rotated and organized by the Staff Manager.

I have worked for the department store for nearly two years now.

It’s a tiring job, standing a lot  but I enjoy my job very much and the challenge it presents.

That’s all about me and my job.

Thank you for listening to my presentation.

DESCRIBE AN ELECTION IN YOUR COUNTRY

The topic today is to Describe an Election in your country.

The substance of this lesson can be used for preparing a one or two minute talk on IELTS or TOEFL Test.

The keywords of the text are highlighted.

An election is held every four or five years to give the citizens of a country the opportunity to vote for a representative in parliament and choose a government.

A political party competes for the right to govern by publishing a manifesto of their proposed policies which they hope will persuade the voter to vote for them when election day comes around to go to the polling station.

Each political party will undertake a campaign in their attempt to persuade the electorate.  Canvassing, door to door, is undertaken and political leaders engage in TV debates on key issues such as education, healthcare and immigration.

The right to vote is available to all citizens who are aged eighteen years or older and to both men and women.

Voting is done in secret, can only be done and is usually done in person on the day of the election at the polling station but nowadays postal voting and voting by proxy for citizens living overseas is also allowed.

The aim of the election is to establish a mandate for one political party to govern by having the majority to bring to fruition their policies according to the manifesto.

If this does not happen, then the democratic process of government is compromised.

There might be a minority government leading to a coalition or alliance with another political party and terms such as power-sharing, Hung Parliament and even Snap Election are banded about by politicians and political commentators.

A Referendum is quite different from an election.

This is when the electorate are asked to decide on a specific issue of national conscience (for example, independence for Scotland,Brexit for Britain to leave the European Union or on something as sensitive as gay marriage).

The election is conducted in defined constituencies and the elected representative (whether for the party to govern or for the opposition (sometimes also called the shadow party), will attend sessions in Parliament.

The country is run by the majority party headed by a Prime Minister who appoints ministers to the Cabinet for key roles such as Chancellor of the Exchequer to manage the national Budget, the Home and Foreign Secretary.

Members of Parliament must also make themselves available for consultation in their constituency and a particular issue might be raised in parliament itself later by the MP if it is a significant issue of public interest.

Nowadays, opinion polls prior to the election and exit polls are done on election day by the media to anticipate the outcome of the election before it is eventually declared.

The right for a citizen to vote in a national election is a very important privilege and should not be underestimated.

 

 

RHETORIC STATEMENTS AND QUESTIONS

This is an English language lesson to practice the use of Rhetoric in conversation.

There are many technical terms to describe Rhetoric but the most common one is Figure of Speech.

In the examples I am going to give in this lesson, they are a mix of Rhetoric Statement and Question.

Not all rhetoric offers contradiction.  In some of my examples, you will see it confirms and accords with the first statement.

I would encourage the student to practice both reading andf speaking the sentences to get a feel of how rhetoric is used in the English language.

None of the sentences are intended to be sarcastic, condascending or offensive to anyone.

Here goes.

  • It was a beautiful film. It looked a beautiful film.

 

  • The film was terrific, wasn’t it/ Are you kidding me?  It was terrible.

 

  • The movie was fabulous. Indeed it was.  Absolutely superb!

 

  • What was that? It sounded like an explosion.

 

  • I saw a ghost last night. You thought you saw a ghost.

 

  • I arrived to work on time. Actually, you arrived several minutes

 

  • I must go now. Of course, you must!

 

  • How are you today? I’m fine.  Can’t you see?

 

  • Are you okay. What do you think

 

  • Can you smell something? Yes dear, it’s my

 

  • How did it go on your date? It didn’t.

 

  • One day I’ll be an astronaut. In your dreams, sonny boy.

 

  • Will you marry me? I thought you would never ask.

 

  • Will you go out with me? Not even if you are the last person left on earth!

 

  • It’s not about what your country can do for you. It’s about what you can do for your  country  (famous words from J.F. Kennedy)

 

  • You are a lovely person. But I don’t love you.

 

  • He was a very brave warrior. Never a truer word has been spoken.

 

  • One small step for man. One giant leap for mankind.  (Neil Armstrong)

 

  • I like the new dress you are wearing. To tell you the truth, it’s quite old.

 

  • Are you hungry? I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse.

 

DESCRIBE MILESTONES IN YOUR LIFE

This is a two minute talk for IELTS or TOEFL to talk about Milestones to  be reached in your life.

The keyword vocabulary of the text is highlighted.

This is the text.

There are many milestones which will be reached during my life.

What are milestones anyway?

Well, they are markers of special things I will personally achieve.

As an infant, I have learnt to walk and talk, to read and write, to swim and to ride a bicycle.

As I got older, I became a scout and learnt survival skills allied with a growing sense of independence.

I could run an errand to the corner shop for my mother, take the bus to school on my own.

i could enter competitions to win prizes and trophies in sport, for singing and creating things.

It will certainly be a milestone when I graduate through the various stages of school and then University, then get my first job.

I will open my first Bank Account and do a sleepover at a friends house.

But I think it will be important to add to my experience of life by travelling overseas before deciding on a degree to study.

That might mean getting a part-time job to finance such a trip or using my initiative to fund-raise another way.

Sooner or later, i will learn to drive, pass the driving test and buy my first car.

Beyond that, i will move out from my parents home.

When the time is right, I will look for promotion in my career.

By then, I will probably be ready to settle down with a partner, start a family and buy my first house.

As i reach each milestone, I am gaining important experience of life and wisdom to make the right decisions life demands of me.

As time goes by, I will have flown on an aeroplane to a faraway destination, perhaps even on a rocket to the moon.

I will have met someone famous.

I will have sat in a rocking chair and found time to understand life and people better.

I will have done someone a good deed and be remembered for it.

I will have made a pilgrimage.

I will have done at least some, if not all, of the things on the imaginary bucket list.

Eventually, I accept that it will be time to retire from work and take it easy in my final yearts.

If there are finaL milestones, then they are surely to share with others the joy of having grandchildren and, being permitted the grace to rest in peace.

It is said that milestones are road markers and all roads lead to Rome.  In fact they do.

Milestones indeed.  Such as they are.

 

DESCRIBE A BUS JOURNEY

This is a two minute talk for IELTS or TOEFL to talk about a bus journey which you make regularly or have made at some time in your life.

Even if you do not use a bus to travel between places in your daily life, the content of the material can easily  be adapted to meet the ability of the speaker.

The keyword vocabulary of the text is highlighted.

This is the text.

I regularly travel by public bus from my home to my office.

The distance is about six miles and the journey takes twenty minutes more or less.

I find using the bus more convenient than going by car or other means of transportation.

My home happens to be on a bus route.

I wait at the bus shelter for the bus to come.

There is a timetable displayed and a bus is scheduled to come every twenty minutes.

The service is fast and reliable.

I stand in line to board the bus.

I get on the bus at the bus stop only after passsengers getting off have alighted.

I pay the correct fare to the driver who issues to me a ticket.

I am reminded by a sign that all passengers must be seated while the bus is in motion.

The bus is usually crowded in the early morning and late afternoon.

The bus is a red double-decker and I like to sit upstairs at the front.

When it’s time to get off, I must first press the bell to give a warning to the driver to stop in plenty of time..

Travelling by bus is the way to go.

THE LITTLE GARUDA

The wishful fourteen year old made a decisive choice on that fateful April day which would shape the rest of her life.

Twenty years have passed since.

Today, at the break of dawn, she has returned for the first time to the Crocodile River.

This was the lowlands and hills of Palembang Province on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

Palembang City itself was still several hours drive away.

This is her world and it is like no other on this earth.

Countless times she had come here since she discovered the place as a recently-turned five year old.

She had always come alone and in all these nine years, she had never seen another human being once.

Nobody had discovered her secret getaway.

Nature was truly her friend here.

It was the perfect place to shape a personal destiny.

On her fifth birthday, she received a book about Sumatran birds from her favourite uncle, the eldest brother of her father.

The impact was like putting a telescope into the hands of a star-gazing astronomer.

From Trogons to Kingfishers, from Pheasants, Eagles and Hawks to Broadbills and Babblers, she knew them all.

When asked a few months later by her schoolteacher what she wanted to be when she grew up, she replied that she wanted to be a bird so that she could fly and see the world.

The whole class laughed including the teacher but the girl meant what she had said.

They called her the Little Garuda.

On that April morning, she rode her bicycle home from school, oblivious of the news that awaited her.

There was a sizeable gathering of people at her home.

She knew that her Uncle’s wife had passed away a month or so before and that there had been much discussion within the family of his re-marriage.

Nothing could prepare her for the news which greeted her that her parents had promised her to her Uncle as his new wife, she merely a girl of fourteen and he a widower three times her age.

She was commanded to her room after a swift ceremony and joined by her Uncle  while the door to the room was locked from the outside.

She undressed as she felt compelled to do and knelt down before his naked frame standing before her, not to give sexual favour but in prayer.

In the endless time that passed while they were alone in the room, the Uncle touched her whole body and attempted penetration to her most virtuous part but did not succeed.

She had resisted his penetration with all her will and might given to her by God.

It was he who finally knocked the door and made an exit from her ungiving presence.

Her only uttered words to him before he left were to tell him hat she was as free as any bird and she would fly away to see the world, as was her dream and her destiny.

He could do nothing to prevent it.

He knew that a gift could not and should not be the price to coerce or compromise an unwilling party into marriage.

The young girl did not sleep that night.

She waited her moment near the breaking of the dawn and made her escape on the bicycle to the place of solittude she knew so well.

She feigned to jump from the bridge but lacked conviction for the final action.

She was understandably confused but not afraid.  She knew that God was watching over her.

She descended the rocky cliff from one side of the bridge to the salty waters edge.

She knew the danger.  This was a calculated risk.

Two twenty-foot crocodiles appeared from the murky waters and rushed towards her but then suddenly braked, menacing in their appearance,  not attacking her.

Then, in a quite extraordinary moment, this girl nonchalently patted the heads of the two crocodiles before they suddenly retreated into the waters and swam away.

Today, the young fourteen year old remembered the moment and the choice she made.

She returned to the bridge where she had left her bicycle.

She knelt to pray for a prolonged period of time, it could have been hours.

Today was no different.  She prayed.

There was a cavity in the weak structure of the bridge and she pushed her bicycle through it into the salty waters of the river she had been immersed by a few minutes before.

The shattered bicycle shattered against the boulder rocks but did not get swept away.

Today, unsurprisingly to her, the corroded remains of the bicycle remained in the salty waters.

Twenty years ago, she raised herself after prayer and looked down at the Crocodile River one final time.

Those who doubted her before would not doubt her now.

Another phase in her life was about to begin.

The Little Garuda flew away.